The beginning of the 19th century saw Europe in turmoil. The Industrial Revolution was in full swing. England, at the forefront of technology, was trying to maintain a monopoly on the new machines and processes that gave it great economic advantage. Industrial spies from other countries exploited inventors and workers in order to duplicate these techniques and machines. A second revolution, induced by the new economic forces, encouraged political change. All over Europe were revolution and war. People began to believe that political systems everywhere needed to be recast.