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The obverse of the round features the design found on the Aztec Sun Stone which is kept in Mexico City’s National Anthropology Museum. It is called the tonalpohualli in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. This 260-day timetable is also called the sacred calendar because it was primarily used as a divinatory tool. The design orders the rituals among the gods. This is a key part of the Aztec culture or philosophy, as they believed without it the world would soon end. Aztec cosmology defines the universe as a very delicate balance between the divine entities who compete for power.
The Aztec sun stone, called Piedra del Sol in Spanish, is is perhaps the most famous work of Aztec sculpture. This late post-classic Mexica sculpture is 141 inches in diameter and 39 inches thick, and it weighs approximately 21.8 tons.
This monolithic sculpture was buried in the main square of Mexico City following the Spanish conquest. It was rediscovered in 1790 when the Mexico City Cathedral was under repair. It was then the sun stone was mounted on a wall of the Cathedral, where it remained until 1885.
There is actually another Aztec calendar called the xiuhpohualli which has 365 days. It describes the days and rituals related to the seasons, and therefor might be called the agricultural year or the solar year.
The reverse displays the profile of Cuauhtemōc, who was the last Aztec Emperor of Tenochtitlan. Even though he was executed by Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés almost 500 years ago, his face appears on Mexican banknotes, paintings, and in modern culture. He is shown wearing the traditional headdress and jewelry of Aztec royalty. The reverse also bears the inscriptions of his name, the metal content, weight, and purity.