Paris mint, KM125, Fr-411. Variety with four berries and a star at the end of the reverse legend. A highly lustrous example with sharp overall detail and just a couple of light abrasions in the fields precluding Gem status.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643. Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France after his father Henry IV was assassinated. Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers to govern the kingdom of France. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence. By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.
France's greatest victory in the conflicts against the Habsburg Empire during the period 1635–59 came at the Battle of Rocroi (1643), five days after Louis's death caused by apparent complications of intestinal tuberculosis. This battle marked the end of Spain's military ascendancy in Europe and foreshadowed French dominance in Europe under Louis XIV, his son and successor.
During the 17th century, coins were minted using the screw press, which involved two heavy iron screws pressing the coin metal to the desired thickness. There were a number of ways in which the actual coin-striking process itself could be mechanized. One involved the use of dies with curved faces either striking individual blanks (the rockerpress), or striking onto strips of metal passed between paired rollers each engraved with several dies (the rotary press).